Halloween Edition

October 2014

Factoid October 23, 2014

All Those Pumpkins!!

Photo by Wendy Holum

BirdSpotter is Back!

The BirdSpotter Photo Contest is starting again over at Project FeederWatch. The first week's category is “Creative Bird Feeders.” Get a photo of your creative feeder and submit it between November 5 and 9 at http://feederwatch.org/birdspotter. Two photos, one the top vote getter and the other a staff favorite, will get a great prize and be in the running for this season's grand prize.

This Month’s Articles

A Murder in the City

Research Recap October 30, 2014

All Those Pumpkins!!

Factoid October 23, 2014

Myths of the Ghost Bird

Interactive October 16, 2014

One of the Flock

From Our Data October 9, 2014

Along Came a Spider

Slideshow October 2, 2014


  1. Margaret Leach says:

    I live in SoCal. Its been very hot here lately with almost no relief and no relief in sight, so black mold is almost guaranteed to show up on my pumpkins once I cut them. Is this harmful to birds and other animals? And is there something I can do to prolong the agony in my pumpkins in order to use them as bird feeders as you’ve suggested? It seems like a great idea…

    • Emma Greig says:

      Hi Margaret,

      Thanks for your question. We don’t recommend that you offer anything to birds that has mold growing on it, as it can be harmful. There are a variety of pumpkin preservation methods that are suggested if you do a quick internet search, so you might consider trying any of those. Using a small amount of diluted bleach to clean your pumpkin might be one of the easiest and most bird-friendly options, although we do not have any tested and verified methods through the Lab of Ornithology, so this is just a suggestion. Best of luck, and thanks again for your question and your concern for our feathered friends.

    • Susan says:

      We are so glad to hear you thinking about disease, birds can be susceptible to picking up diseases on feeders. This is not something you would keep up forever. Pumpkins do mold, but for a couple of days, it will be fine. One thing you could do to slow-down the molding process is to line the inside of the pumpkin with melted coconut oil. Coconut oil is a natural mold/bacteria inhibitor and will help extend the life of your pumpkin (plus edible to birds). But yes, as soon as mold appears, you would want to take it down!

  2. Louise Gagnon says:

    I’d rather eat pumpkins, flesh and seeds!

  3. ann kurzius says:

    I’d be happy to leave a cut-up pumpkin out if I could be sure it would be eaten by birds, but in my neighborhood it would more likely feed squirrels and RATS. Could I spray it with something that would repel pests but not harm birds??

    • Carol K. says:

      Since mammals have the senses of taste & smell but birds do not, spraying the pumpkin with one of the commercial mixtures of garlic/hot peppers/rotten eggs OR sprinkling the pumpkin liberally with ground hot peppers ought to do the trick. At least, those help keep rabbits from nibbling some of my garden produce.

  4. Rebecca Kurtzner says:

    What a great idea! I’ll be happy to “re-purpose” my Halloween pumpkin for the birds and any other wildlife. (Luckily, I have a large stump and lots of wildlife in my back yard too.) I’m interested in re-purposing anything into wild bird feeders and even nesting boxes…It just makes sense, as opposed to spending large $ on retail models, and seems more rewarding to invest a little time and creativity instead.

  5. BinoX says:

    I like the idea to eat the pumpkin flesh and give birds only a seeds, its would prevent a mess and as I know seeds is more nutritious food for birds.

  6. nest says:

    It is frequently traced to the symbolism of trees in pre-Christian winter rites, in particular through the story of Donar’s Oak and the popularized story of Saint Boniface and the conversion of the German pagans, in which Saint Boniface cuts down an oak tree that the German pagans worshipped, and replaces it with an evergreen tree, telling them about how its triangular shape reminds humanity of the Trinity and how it points to heaven. Situs Poker Online

  7. bni says:

    According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, “The use of evergreen trees, wreaths, and garlands to symbolize eternal life was a custom of the ancient Egyptians, Chinese, and Hebrews. Agen Domino Terpercaya

  8. pigura says:

    Tree worship was common among the pagan Europeans and survived their conversion to Christianity in the Scandinavian customs of decorating the house and barn with evergreens at the New Year to scare away the devil and of setting up a tree for the birds during Christmastime.” Daftar Situs Poker Online

  9. tiga says:

    Alternatively, it is identified with the “tree of paradise” of medieval mystery plays that were given on 24 December, the commemoration and name day of Adam and Eve in various countries. Bandar Domino Ceme

  10. colokan says:

    In such plays, a tree decorated with apples (to represent the forbidden fruit) and wafers (to represent the Eucharist and redemption) was used as a setting for the play. Like the Christmas crib, the Paradise tree was later placed in homes. The apples were replaced by round objects such as shiny red balls. Agen Domino Ceme

  11. bandkiu says:

    Georgians believe that Chichilaki resembles the famous beard of St. Basil the Great, who is thought to visit people during Christmas similar to the Santa Claus tradition. Situs Bandar Qiu
    There was an old pagan custom of suspending at the ceiling a branch of fir, spruce or pine called Podlazniczka associated with Koliada. The branches were decorated with apples, nuts, cookies, colored paper, stars made of straw, ribbons and colored wafers. Some people believed that the tree had magical powers that were linked with harvesting and success in the next year.

  12. summer says:

    The Georgians have their own traditional Christmas tree called Chichilaki, made from dried up hazelnut or walnut branches that are shaped to form a small coniferous tree. These pale-colored ornaments differ in height from 20 cm (7.9 in) to 3 meters (9.8 feet). Bandar Q Online

  13. gail says:

    Chichilakis are most common in the Guria and Samegrelo regions of Georgia near the Black Sea, but they can also be found in some stores around the capital of Tbilisi. Agen Bandar Kiu

  14. tukang komen says:

    In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, these traditions were almost completely replaced by the German custom of decorating the Christmas tree. Judi BandarQ

  15. tisu says:

    Customs of erecting decorated trees in wintertime can be traced to Christmas celebrations in Renaissance-era guilds in Northern Germany and Livonia. The first evidence of decorated trees associated with Christmas Day are trees in guildhalls decorated with sweets to be enjoyed by the apprentices and children. In Livonia (present-day Latvia and Estonia), in 1441, 1442, 1510 and 1514, the Brotherhood of Blackheads erected a tree for the holidays in their guild houses in Riga and Reval (now Tallinn). On the last night of the celebrations leading up to the holidays, the tree was taken to the Town Hall Square where the members of the brotherhood danced around it. Agen Judi BandarQ

  16. basah says:

    A Bremen guild chronicle of 1570 reports that a small tree decorated with “apples, nuts, dates, pretzels and paper flowers” was erected in the guild-house for the benefit of the guild members’ children, who collected the dainties on Christmas Day. Situs Judi Bandar Qiu

  17. kotak says:

    In 1584, the pastor and chronicler Balthasar Russow in his Chronica der Provinz Lyfflandt (1584) wrote of an established tradition of setting up a decorated spruce at the market square where the young men “went with a flock of maidens and women, first sang and danced there and then set the tree aflame”. Situs Judi Domino QQ

  18. minyak says:

    After the Protestant Reformation, such trees are seen in the houses of upper-class Protestant families as a counterpart to the Catholic Christmas cribs. This transition from the guild hall to the bourgeois family homes in the Protestant parts of Germany ultimately gives rise to the modern tradition as it developed in the 18th and 19th centuries. Judi Domino QQ

  19. balsem says:

    By the early 18th century, the custom had become common in towns of the upper Rhineland, but it had not yet spread to rural areas. Wax candles, expensive items at the time, are found in attestations from the late 18th century. Domino QQ 99 Online

  20. gkbisa says:

    Along the lower Rhine, an area of Roman Catholic majority, the Christmas tree was largely regarded as a Protestant custom. As a result, it remained confined to the upper Rhineland for a relatively long period of time. The custom did eventually gain wider acceptance beginning around 1815 by way of Prussian officials who emigrated there following the Congress of Vienna. BandarQ Terbaik

  21. master says:

    In the 19th century, the Christmas tree was taken to be an expression of German culture and of Gemütlichkeit, especially among emigrants overseas. AduQ Terbaik

  22. ahmadani says:

    A decisive factor in winning general popularity was the German army’s decision to place Christmas trees in its barracks and military hospitals during the Franco-Prussian War. Only at the start of the 20th century did Christmas trees appear inside churches, this time in a new brightly lit form. Domino QQ Terbaik

  23. muke says:

    In the early 19th century, the custom became popular among the nobility and spread to royal courts as far as Russia. Princess Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg introduced the Christmas tree to Vienna in 1816, and the custom spread across Austria in the following years. Domino Qiu Terbaik

  24. gile says:

    In France, the first Christmas tree was introduced in 1840 by the duchesse d’Orléans. In Denmark a Danish newspaper claims that the first attested Christmas tree was lit in 1808 by countess Wilhemine of Holsteinborg. Bandar Qiu Terbaik

  25. gaston says:

    It was the aging countess who told the story of the first Danish Christmas tree to the Danish writer Hans Christian Andersen in 1865. He had published a fairy-tale called The Fir-Tree in 1844, recounting the fate of a fir-tree being used as a Christmas tree. Domino 99 Terbaik

  26. ranitidin says:

    Although the tradition of decorating the home with evergreens was long established, the custom of decorating an entire small tree was unknown in Britain until some two centuries ago. At the time of the personal union with Hanover, George III’s German-born wife, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, introduced a Christmas tree at a party she gave for children in 1800.[22] The custom did not at first spread much beyond the royal family. Poker Online Terbaik

  27. karpet says:

    Despite uncertainty about Bandar Ceme Terbaik the single origin of yakuza organizations, most modern yakuza derive from two classifications Domino QQ Terpercaya

  28. biji says:

    which emerged in the mid-Edo Period (1603–1868): tekiya, those who primarily peddled illicit, stolen or shoddy goods; and BandarQ Terbaik Indonesia bakuto,

  29. bingkai says:

    aduQ Terbaik Indonesia those who were involved in or participated in gambling.

  30. pumpkin says:

    A pumpkin is a cultivar of a squash plant, most commonly of Cucurbita pepo, that is round, with smooth, slightly ribbed skin, and deep yellow to orange coloration. The thick shell contains the seeds and pulp. Some exceptionally large cultivars of squash with similar appearance have also been derived from Cucurbita maxima. Domino 99 Terbaik Indonesia

  31. term says:

    Specific cultivars of winter squash derived from other species, including C. argyrosperma, and C. moschata, are also sometimes called “pumpkin”. In New Zealand and Australian English, the term pumpkin generally refers to the broader category called winter squash elsewhere. Poker Online Terbaik Indonesia

  32. cane says:

    Pumpkins, like other squash, are native to North America. Pumpkins are widely grown for commercial use, and are used both in food and recreation. Pumpkin pie, for instance, is a traditional part of

    Thanksgiving meals in Canada and the United States, although commercially canned pumpkin puree and pumpkin pie fillings are usually made from different kinds of winter squash than the pumpkins

    frequently carved as jack-o’-lanterns for decoration around Halloween. Bandar Ceme Terbaik Indonesia

  33. kertas says:

    Pumpkins, like other squash, are thought to have originated in North America. The oldest evidence, pumpkin-related seeds dating between 7000 and 5500 BC, was found in Mexico. BandarQ Terpercaya

  34. apap says:

    Since some squash share the same botanical classifications as pumpkins, the names are frequently used interchangeably. One often-used botanical classification relies on the characteristics of the

    stems: pumpkin stems are more rigid, prickly, and angular (with an approximate five-degree angle) than squash stems, which are generally softer, more rounded, and more flared where joined to the

    fruit. AduQ Terpercaya

  35. bished says:

    Traditional C. pepo pumpkins generally weigh between 6 and 18 pounds (2.7 and 8.2 kg), though the largest cultivars (of the species C. maxima) regularly reach weights of over 75 pounds (34 kg). Domino QQ Terpercaya

  36. dingding says:

    The color of pumpkins is derived from the orange pigments abundant in them. The main nutrients are lutein and both alpha and beta carotene, the latter of which generates vitamin A in the body.

  37. dingding says:

    The word pumpkin originates from the word pepon (πέπων), which is Greek for “large melon”, something round and large. The French adapted this word to pompon, which the British changed to pumpion and later American colonists changed that to the word that is used today, pumpkin. Domino Qiu Terpercaya

  38. pler says:

    The term pumpkin has no agreed upon botanical or scientific meaning, and is used interchangeably with “squash” and “winter squash” in some areas. In many areas, including North America and the

    United Kingdom, pumpkin traditionally refers to only certain round, orange varieties of winter squash, predominantly derived from Cucurbita pepo, while in Australian English, pumpkin can refer to

    winter squash of any appearance. Bandar Qiu Terpercaya

  39. squash says:

    All pumpkins are winter squash: mature fruit of certain species in the genus Cucurbita. Characteristics commonly used to define “pumpkin” include smooth and slightly ribbed skin, and deep yellow to

    orange[10] color. Circa 2005, white pumpkins had become increasingly popular in the United States. Other colors, including dark green (as with some oilseed pumpkins), also exist. Domino 99 Terpercaya

  40. ohilo says:

    Pumpkins are grown all around the world for a variety of reasons ranging from agricultural purposes (such as animal feed) to commercial and ornamental sales. Of the seven continents, only

    Antarctica is unable to produce pumpkins; the biggest international producers of pumpkins include the United States, Canada, Mexico, India, and China. The traditional American pumpkin used for

    jack-o-lanterns is the Connecticut Field variety. Poker Online Terpercaya

  41. rifai says:

    As one of the most popular crops in the United States, 1.5 billion pounds (680,000,000 kilograms or 680,000 tonnes) of pumpkins are produced each year. The top pumpkin-producing states include

    Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and California. Bandar Ceme Terpercaya

  42. Morton says:

    According to the Illinois Department of Agriculture, 95% of the U.S. crop intended for processing is grown in Illinois. Nestlé, operating under the brand name Libby’s, produces 85% of the processed

    pumpkin in the United States, at their plant in Morton, Illinois. In the fall of 2009, rain in Illinois devastated the Nestlé crop, resulting in a shortage affecting the entire country during the

    Thanksgiving holiday season. BandarQ Terpercaya Indonesia

  43. least says:

    Pumpkins are a warm-weather crop that is usually planted in early July. The specific conditions necessary for growing pumpkins require that soil temperatures three inches (7.6 cm) deep are at least

    60 °F (15.5 °C) and soil that holds water well. AduQ Terpercaya Indonesia

  44. sandy says:

    Pumpkin crops may suffer if there is a lack of water or because of cold temperatures (in this case, below 65 °F (18.3 °C); frost can be detrimental), and sandy soil with poor water retention or poorly drained soils that become waterlogged after heavy rain. Domino QQ Terpercaya Indonesia

  45. replace says:

    Pumpkins are, however, rather hardy, and even if many leaves and portions of the vine are removed or damaged, the plant can very quickly re-grow secondary vines to replace what was removed. Domino Qiu Terpercaya Indonesia

  46. honeybees says:

    Pumpkins produce both a male and female flower; honeybees play a significant role in fertilization. Bandar Qiu Terpercaya Indonesia

  47. pollinated says:

    Pumpkins have historically been pollinated by the native squash bee Peponapis pruinosa, but this bee has declined, probably at least in part to pesticide sensitivity, and today most commercial plantings are pollinated by honeybees. Poker Online Terpercaya Indonesia

  48. acre says:

    One hive per acre (4,000 m² per hive) is recommended by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Domino 99 Terpercaya Indonesia

  49. inadequate says:

    If there are inadequate bees for pollination, gardeners often have to hand pollinate. Inadequately pollinated pumpkins usually start growing but abort before full development. Bandar Ceme Terpercaya Indonesia

  50. within says:

    “Giant pumpkins” are a large squash (within the group of common squash Cucurbita maxima) that can exceed 1 ton (2,000 pounds) in weight. Situs Judi Online Terbaik

  51. efforts says:

    The variety arose from the large squash of Chile after 1500 A.D through the efforts of botanical societies and enthusiast farmers. Situs Judi Online Terbaik Indonesia

  52. extended says:

    Such germplasm is commercially provocative, and in 1986 the United States extended protection for the giant squash. Situs Judi Online Terpercaya

  53. specimens says:

    This protection was limited to small specimens of a very specific parameters, being a weight of 175 pounds, oblong shape, etc.[21] In 2004, the restriction expired except for the requirement of indefinite use of the pseudonym “Dill’s Atlantic Giant” for squash fitting the specific parameters or the seeds thereof. Situs Judi Online Terpercaya Indonesia

  54. provides says:

    In a 100 gram amount, raw pumpkin provides 26 Calories and is an excellent source (20% or more the Daily Value, DV) of provitamin A beta-carotene and vitamin A (53% DV) (table). Agen Poker Online Terbaik

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